Increased uric acid in the blood: the norm, why its level increases or decreases, what to do
The main causes and symptoms of uric acid increase
This pathology is also called hyperuricemia. Medical experts identify the following main reasons for the growth of uric acid in the body:
- arterial hypertension;
- endocrine system diseases (diabetes mellitus, acromegaly, hypoparathyroidism);
- elevated cholesterol;
- kidney disease;
- blood diseases.
With elevated uric acid in the body, the patient experiences characteristic symptoms, the degree of manifestation of which depends on the underlying cause of the pathology. Most often, this is indicated by the following signs:
- increased fatigue;
- the occurrence of tartar;
- chronic fatigue;
- diathesis on hands and cheeks.
In some cases, asymptomatic hyperuricemia may occur. It is believed that every fifth inhabitant of Russia has an increased level of uric acid without clinical pathology. The cause of the pathology in this case may be a hereditary factor. In the presence of hyperuricemia, one of the closest relatives is recommended to take a blood test at least twice a year.
Other factors in the development of the disease
The following phenomena in the body can also lead to the development of hyperuricemia:
- diseases occurring against the background of massive tissue breakdown (burn shock and others);
- acute renal failure and urolithiasis;
- Lesch-Nyhan syndrome - a genetic disease that leads to the accumulation of purines in the body;
- Down's syndrome, accompanied by a violation of the purine metabolism;
- erectile dysfunction on the background of a significant increase in the level of purine metabolism in the blood.
There are other nonspecific factors that cause hyperuricemia, which include:
- Taking certain medicines (Aspirin, Furosemide, Theophylline, Fenothiazines, and others).
- Saturated with purine bases diet.Hyperuricemia is also known as aristocratic disease, since the nutrition of high society representatives is usually characterized by an excess of meat and fish products, red wine, and various by-products containing purines in significant quantities.
- Any alcoholic beverages, including beer, adversely affect the functioning of the liver and kidneys, which can also cause hyperuricemia. Long-term diets are also harmful, because of which the excretory function of the kidneys is also often disturbed.
- Excessive physical activity leads to the development of hyperuricemia due to increased protein consumption.
Diagnosis of uric acid levels
To check the level of uric acid venous blood is sampled, and, as a rule, the results become known already within a day. For children under 12 years old, the rate of uric acid is 120-330 µmol / l, for women under 60 years old - 200-300 µmol / l, and for men under 60 years old - 250-400 µmol / l. At older age, the rate for women is already 210–430 µmol / l, and for men - 250–480 µmol / l.
In order for the study to reflect an accurate result, it is recommended to refrain from eating food for eight hours before taking the test.Also, 2-3 days before the procedure, you should avoid taking any medications, physical overload, alcohol consumption, food rich in purines and proteins.
Treatment of hyperuricemia
If an increased level of uric acid is detected, a more thorough diagnosis of the organism is required to establish the exact causes of this condition. Only the treatment of the underlying pathology can completely eliminate hyperuricemia. With elevated uric acid, regardless of the cause of the disease, the patient is prescribed a special diet with a decrease in the amount of protein products in the diet. It excludes meat and canned foods, fish and smoked meats, mushrooms and legumes, chocolate and coffee, as well as alcohol. At the same time, the share of fresh fruits and vegetables, grains, eggs and dairy products is increasing. It is recommended to take broths of wild rose and bran.
Patients with hyperuricemia are advised to combat obesity. In some cases, this is already enough to get rid of hyperuricemia without specialized treatment. It is also important to increase the daily drinking regime to 2-3 liters.In addition to pure water allowed to drink fruit and vegetable juices, fruit drinks.
In severe cases, drug therapy is prescribed, which involves taking the following drugs:
Suitable drugs are prescribed by a general practitioner or an endocrinologist, who also conducts periodic monitoring of treatment with the measurement of acid content in urine and blood. It is allowed to use folk remedies as a strengthening therapy, for example, decoctions from birch buds, lingonberry leaf and nettle, taken in one glass twice a day until improvements appear.
Causes and treatment of low uric acid
Reduced uric acid levels (hypouricemia) is also a serious disorder that requires diagnosis and treatment. The following causes of this pathology are distinguished:
- hereditary deficiency of xanthine oxidase;
- hereditary phosphorylase deficiency;
- chronic kidney and bladder disease;
- gene mutations (genes URAT1 and GLUT9), resulting in impaired absorption of uric acid in the proximal renal tubules;
- increase in the volume of extracellular fluid against the background of pathological thirst - polydipsia and with significant doses of intravenously injected drugs;
- cerebral syndrome;
- parenteral nutrition with purine deficiency (prescribed for various deviations in the body);
- HIV infection affecting the brain, leading to a lack of uric acid;
- cancer against the background of protein and purine deficiency;
- enterocolitis on the background of intestinal protein absorption disorders;
- early gestational periods, characterized by an increase in the total volume of circulating blood that dilutes uric acid.
The development of hypouricemia can also be caused by some non-specific factors, for example, a low-protein diet with restriction of fish and meat. This situation often occurs in low-income people, as well as supporters of a vegetarian lifestyle. In addition, an increased diuretic effect and constant removal of acid from the body are observed in those who abuse tea and coffee. Also, hypouricemia causes the intake of certain drugs, for example, losartan, glucose, trimethoprim, estrogen hormones and others.
The decrease in uric acid levels is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- impaired vision and hearing;
- loss of skin sensitivity;
- asthenia - drops of emotional background;
- increased fatigue;
- memory impairment.
In severe cases, hypouricemia causes paralysis, followed by death, or multiple sclerosis, leading to multiple lesions of the nervous tissue. The main method of treating a disease is the normalization of nutrition with an increase in the level of protein in the diet. The recommended rate of this component per day is 1 g per kilogram of weight in women, and in men - 2.5-4 g per kilogram of its own weight. For accelerated normalization of weight, patients are recommended periodic physical exertion, as well as the additional intake of dry protein mixtures containing an increased amount of protein in its pure form.
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